By the Civil Society on the Rwandan Access to Information Bill
The Rwanda Civil Society as a community representative, cognisant:
that there cannot be real democracy and good governance without effective citizen participation, and that there cannot be effective citizen participation without access to information.
that the right to access to information is fundamental human right and a cornerstone for all other rights enshrined in the constitution of the Republic of Rwanda of 4th June 2003 as amended to date.
that to attain the aspirations in the vision 2020, MDGs and EDPRS, it is critical that information is availed to the public for its effective participation in the development process, and for the promotion of transparency and accountability.

Therefore pursuant to:
Article 19 of the international covenant on civil and political rights which provides that:

1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.
2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.
3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order or of public health or morals .
Article 19 of the Universal declaration of human rights which provides that:
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the freedom to hold opinion without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers .
Article 9 of the African charter on human and peoples’ Rights which provides that:
Every individual shall have a right to receive information .
The Rwanda Civil Society appreciates the Rwandan Bill on access to information especially in article 33 on the protection of applicants of access to information from the burden of proof; on the set objectives; on limited exemption provided for in article 5 of the bill where the protection of information is confronted against the harm test; the proactive and maximum disclosure of information in article7 and 8; a clear process on access to information; inclusion of both public and private bodies especially in article 1 paragraph 6 and article 17 under title iv, where it says, that information is necessary for the enforcement or protection of any freedom or right recorganized under the constitution or any other Law; the protection of whistleblowers in article 37; time frame for response by government bodies; fair cost on access to information under article 15 especially where the fees could be waived off in cases where payment may cause financial hardship to the applicant, where disclosure is in public interest and where the collection fee exceeds the amount collected; and the provision of a clear role of oversight to the office of the Ombudsman.

The Civil Society also appreciates the implementation and enforcement mechanisms provided for under article 35, mechanisms on the promotion of the law and the provision of a strong network to raise public awareness of the law under article 36, that is made up of Media High Council; Rwanda Governance advisory Council; Gender Monitoring Office; National Human Rights Commission; and the Bar Association.

These positive attributes of the bill are highly appreciated, however the Rwanda Civil Society would like to caution the Parliamentarian Political Affairs committee to consider revision of the following areas of the bill before it can be fully adopted into Law.

1. Exemption clause: we appreciate the nature of limited exemption of article: 5. However paragraph 3 should clearly clarify ‘unwarranted invasion of the privacy of an individual’, to ensure that information of public nature on an individual is not denied to the public under the pretext of individual privacy.

Paragraph 5 of the same article ‘damage a public authority’s position in any actual’ or contemplate legal proceeding. The highlighted sentence could be a hindrance to access to information and this can serve as a drawback clause that could take back the same rights recognized under the same Law.

2. Harm test clause: The Civil Society appreciates the consultation process provided for under Article 6 to develop guidelines determining when information would cause serious harm to national security of Rwanda. However we suggest that an independent organization like, Civil Society Organizations and Private Media, should be part of these consultations instead of limiting the coverage to the Minister, Office of the Ombudsman, the Human Rights Commission and the Minister responsible for matters relating to national security. We highly recommend that consultations with independent bodies by the government be carried out in order to have guidelines that reflect representative views.

3. The role of public information officers in relation to their superiors: we appreciate the clear role of the information officer provided for under article 9 title III of the Bill, and that the public information officer shall be of sufficient rank within the public authority, empowered to make binding decisions in relation to information disclosure under the Law, however we recommend that in case this information officer seeks help from any other person or his superiors, this person that is requested should immediately and automatically qualify to be an information officer by virtue of receiving the request from the designed information officer seeking assistance, thus answerable and can also face charges and sanctions provided under this Law.

The same article should regulate the circumstances where the information officer is unable to perform his/her duties due to any reason including sickness, maternity leave, annual leave or she/he is under suspension.

4. Time frame for response from public authority: The Rwanda Civil Society appreciates the realistic time frame in article 11 under title III of the bill for the information officer to respond to the applicant and which cannot exceed 3 working days after receiving the application, within 24 hours in case the sought information concerns life or liberty of a person, and 2 days in case information is sought for news by journalists. However we caution about the 10 days provided for under article 12 for a response from the public authority or private body to whom the application has been referred to by the information officer. We therefore recommend that this period be reduced to at least 5 working days from the date that the application was first made, failing which the request shall be deemed to have been rejected, except in circumstances provided for under article 11 paragraph 4.

5. Access to information in private bodies: Article 12 under title IV should clearly specify the competent court a person may apply to for an order requiring the private body to provide information on the ground that the information is urgently and immediately required in the interests of preservation of life or liberty of a person. The word “private body” should also clearly be defined and given extensive interpretation to include individuals that might hold information necessary for enforcement of any freedom or right that is recognized under the constitution or any other Law.

6. Offences and penalties: The Civil Society overall, appreciates the manifested good intentions in providing for sanctions in article 34 under title VI of the bill. However the provided sanctions and penalties of 100,000RWF to 300,000RWF and 100,000RWF to 500,000RWF are not good enough to deter offenders of rights to access to information especially in likely cases of conspiracy between the management and information officers. We therefore recommend the revision of sanctions in general. The sanctions provided for in case of recidivism in paragraph 3 should be the one’s applied on first time offenders, and in case of recidivism, the penalties should be raised to 12 month imprisonment and a fine ranging from 2,000,000RWF to 4,000,000RWF. These sanctions are very critical in order to have this Law effectively implemented and to set a good and successful precedent in promotion of access to information freedoms. These penalties are proposed in reference to other laws on access to information; a case in point is the South African Public Access to Information Act of 2000 that provides for a two year imprisonment to offenders of Access to Information Rights.

The Rwanda Civil Society would also like to point out the inconsistence in the three languages of the bill “English, Kinyarwanda and French”, for the example the court of appeal referred to under Article 32 in English is the High Court, (la Cour Suprême) in French and in Kinyarwanda (URUKIKO RWISUMBUYE) meaning the court of high instance. In this case, the same article provides for different jurisdiction for the same matter. We therefore recommend harmonization of the three versions of the text bill in English, French and Kinyarwanda before being adopted into a law.

7. Records that cannot be found: The bill is silent on situations where the requested information, a) is in the public body’s possession, but cannot be found or, b) does not exist. In this case we recommend that the bill imposes obligations to the public authority or the designed private body, to clearly show all steps taken in search for the information and inform the requester (applicant) of all taken steps plus contact details of those involved. In case this information is found at a later date, it should be availed to the requester/applicant.

8. Gender Sensitive and Disaggregated Data: Article 1 point 9 states that the law progressively promotes the full realization of the freedom of information, and article 40 paragraph 4 talks about the ministerial order to provide for special provisions to enable persons with disability, youth, women and other marginalized groups to fully enjoy their rights to access information in regard to this Law; Although we appreciate the promotion of this full realization and the provisions to be provided in the ministerial order to enable persons with disability, youth, women and other marginalized groups to fully enjoy their rights to access information, we strongly suggest that any information requested should be gender disaggregated so that the law can promote gender equality through being gender sensitive.

9. The role of the oversight body: The Rwanda Civil Society appreciates the provision of an oversight body for the effective enforcement of this law. Title V from article 25 to 31, the bill provides for powers of the Office of Ombudsman as an oversight body in relation to the enforcement of the rights on access to information, however on the other hand, Article 7 bis of the law n° 25/08/2003 establishing the organization and the functioning of the Office of the Ombudsman as amended to date provides that; Faithful declaration of assets shall be confidentially kept such that knowledge of their content shall only be known to the owners and their receivers. If considered necessary, the President of the Supreme Court or the Prosecutor General of the Republic, after requesting for it in writing from the Chief Ombudsman, or the Senate, may be shown a faithful declaration of an accused person so that investigations may be carried out. However, if it is concerned with those dignitaries, the faithful declarations shall be requested for by their Assistants. The Rwanda Civil Society would like to caution about the contradiction between the Ombudsman’s duties on confidentiality in relation to the enforcement of the rights of access to information provided under this bill.

10. Finally we would also like to point out that this bill lacks article 4, and we also recommend the bill to define personal information under definitions in article 2. This is important in order to avoid ambiguity which can lead to miss use of the term by those having interest in protecting information of public nature. We therefore suggest that the following should be taken into consideration while defining this term:

  Information relating to the race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, national, ethnic, sexual orientation, age, physical or mental health, well-being, religious beliefs.


The Rwanda Civil Society is confident that if this bill is revised to take into account these recommendations, adopted into a Law and well implemented, will not only promote an open government in Rwanda, but will serve as a role model in the region and on the African continent at large.

The CSEOM presenting his final report on presidential elections

Executive Summary

  • The second presidential elections after the 1994 genocide and since the enactment of the Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda have shown how well the country has developed its electoral framework, and political maturity.
  • On polling day, elections unfolded in an atmosphere of calm and sound organisation, demonstrating the National Electoral Commission’s impressive organisational capacities.
  • Election procedures were followed systematically on Election Day, including counting of ballots prior to the start of polling and secure closure of ballot boxes.
  • Procedures for transmission and consolidation of polling centre results at sector level were lacking in clarity and this was reflected in inconsistent practices that were difficult to observe.
  • The legal framework for elections in Rwanda provides for the President of the Republic to be elected by universal suffrage through a direct and secret ballot. The election of the President of the Republic is done in one uninominal round ballot with a relative majority of votes cast. Where there is equality of votes for the first two candidates, a second round for only such candidates shall be organised in a period not exceeding one month. This system is cost effective but becomes weak in a situation where we have so many strong candidates that can share the votes leaving the winner that has not been elected by the majority.
  • The Rwanda legislation is silent on the conduct of the public civil servants during the campaign period
  • The electoral law elaborates the process of consolidation of results at the polling stations, districts and the national level. The process in theory is very transparent but the practice with regard to the process of transmission and consolidation of results from polling centres to the district level was in some areas cumbersome to observers.
  • Public media outlets offered equal space and opportunities to all candidates. However, the private media is not subject to any legal limits on accepting political advertising, hence the ruling party has been able to dominate the private media, while PSD, PL and PPC had lesser visibility.
  • The campaign period of 20 days was calm and without significant incident. RPF had significantly more campaign resources than the other competing parties, who were not as visible.
  • Women participated in big numbers in all elements of the electoral process: as registered voters, but fewer in numbers among election administrators.
  • The decentralisation of polling locations to village (umudugudu) level and the resulting increase in the number of polling stations and rooms since the 2003 elections are to be commended, as they enhanced voters’ access. There were 2273 polling stations across the country and 15 507 polling rooms for presidential elections.
Presentation of the local elections report

Final Report on local elections 2011:

Civil Society Observation Mission (CSEOM) acknowledgement

The Civil Society Elections Observation Mission-CSEOM brings together several members of the civil society drawn from different organizations and at different levels. The mission is composed of 11 Core Team members, 30 Long Term Observers and 500 Short Term Observers covering all the 30 districts,416 sectors and 496 polling stations. The Chief observer, Eugene RWIBASIRA, leads the CSEOM.

The CSEOM is thankful to the National Electoral Commission (NEC) who facilitated the accreditation of her observers.

It also conveys her special thanks to the local leaders who demonstrated good cooperation and provided all the information and support that was needed.

The CSEOM is grateful to the European Union for her generous financial support, which enabled the CSEOM to accomplish its mission to deploy a big team of observers for the 2011 Rwandan Local Elections.

More thanks also go to the organizations that contributed the observers for such a long observation period despite the heavy work schedules in their institutions.

Finally, the CSEOM would like to acknowledge the outstanding and professional contribution of all CSEOM Observers for the success of the mission. A big vote of thanks is extended to the Core Team, LTOs, and STOs for the availability, the excellent teamwork and organizational capacities they demonstrated before, during and after the elections.


1. Introduction

For the third time after the Tutsi Genocide of 1994, local elections took place from the 4th of
February 2011 to 5th March 2011.

In general these elections were conducted in a conducive environment and there was a
very good turn up of voters.
Local elections at village (umudugudu), cell and sector levels were carried out between 4th and

Elections at Sector and District level were carried out from 21st February 2011 to 26/2/2011.
Elections for women, youth and people living with disabilities were conducted from 13th
February 2011 to 5th March 2011.

2. Summary of election proceedings

In general, the elections were, free and fair, there was a high turn up of voters who freely elected candidates of their choice despite some irregularities.

  • In some parts of the country, elections at village level started late.
  • In areas where there were many secondary schools and higher institutions of learning, students influenced the outcome of elections.
  • The elections guidelines were not published in time.
  • In some parts of the country women elections did not respect time and in some places elections had to be postponed.
  • In some sectors, there were no candidates for the Executive Committee in elections of people with disabilities as Article 18 of the law no 03/2011 of 10/02/2011 governing the organization and functioning of the national councils for people with disabilities stipulates that candidates for the executive committee at both sector and district level must hold an A2 level.
  • Submission of candidature and approval of the list of candidates was in respect of the time frame set by the National Electoral Commission and there was no complaint registered thereafter.
  • The candidates at village and cell level were given equal opportunities and time for campaigning.
  • Some candidates withdrew their candidature at the very last minute and, there was no sufficient time to inform voters.
  • Some supervisors of the elections, and local authorities abused their powers and voted on behalf of some voters who had not turned up to vote, However, measures were taken against the culprits.
  • In some places the CSEOM observers did not manage to access the counting and consolidation of votes at polling centers and at district level.
  • During elections there were cases of a single and unopposed candidates which did not manifest competition.

3. Main items of the Report

3.1. Conduct of elections

3.1.1. Part One: Elections at village, cell and sector level took place between 4 February and 19th February.

Generally the elections were free and fair, there was a high turn up of voters. People made their choices in a conducive and secure environment. At village level, voters lined behind the candidates of their choice. In every village committee two women and one youth representative were elected to represent the village in the cell council.
In some places, elections started late at village level. This was because voters did not turn up on time especially in Kigali City and in the southern province.

At some polling stations, supervisors of elections did not bother to verify the required number of voters (quorum) which is (1/2) in order for the elections to take place. Lists of voters were not used and this made it hard to know the level of turn up of voters.

Of the 496 polling stations observed, in 9 sites, there were many secondary schools and higher institutions of learning, where students influenced the outcome of elections. Below are some examples:

  • In Nyagatovu Village, Kimironko Sector, Gasabo district where there is a tertiary institution-KIE; Busasamana and Gihisi Cells, of Nyanza district. Muhanga Stadium,in Muhanga district; Inyemeramihigo college in Rubavu district; Kiramuruzi in Gatsibo District; Nyamasheke Primary School in Nyamasheke district; Cyasemakamba village in Ngoma district. In all of these cases the number of student voters out numbered that of local population.
  • In Gakenke, the candidate behind whom students lined up on 4/02/2011 is the one who eventually became elected;
    The elections guidelines were not published in time and in some places, election supervisors received them on the polling day.

On the elections of 4/02/2011, there was no provision for sufficient loudspeakers at polling centres despite the many villages congregated there.

Voter education was done through media outlets. However, the population and even some electoral commission agents had limited knowledge of the elective positions at village level on the polling day.This is indicative of the level of civic education done within the communities prior to election. The big number of those positions and the fact that all of them were to be voted for in just one day demanded sufficient voter education. Elections held on 13 February, 2011:

In 5 polling stations, women elections did not respect time. This happened in the southern province and Kigali city.
The Law no 02/2011 of 10/02/2011 that govern organization and functioning of the Women Council and Law no 03/2011 of 10/02/2011 governing the organization and functioning of the National Council for People with disabilities were published in official Gazette on 11/2/2011 two days to the elections. of 19/2/2011:

These elections were for representatives of youth, women and people with disabilities on different committees and councils from sector to national level.

In general these elections went on well at village, cell, and sector levels despite few problems that were as a result of limited number of candidates for the councils in some sectors. This was because most contestants did not have the required education levels as per article 18 of the law no 03/2011 of 10/02/2011 governing the organization and functioning of the national councils for people with disabilities which stipulates that candidates for the executive committee at both sector and district level must hold an A2 level certificate. As a result many committees did not get the required number of members. A case in point is in the sectors of Busasamana, Kanama, Nyundo and Rugerero of Rubavu district where out of the 27 candidates in the district, only 20 were qualified.

3.1.2. Part 2: From 21-26 February, elections were held at the level of Sector, with direct elections on 21 February.

Sector level.

These elections were to elect members of the district council in general and particularly 30% of women in all district and sector councils. The following were observed:

  • Submission of candidature and approval of the list of candidates was in respect of the time frame set by the National Electoral Commission and there was no complaint registered thereafter.
  • Campaigns: candidates at village and cell level were given equal opportunities and time for campaigning. However, in most places campaigns were conducted in the afternoons and there was limited number of eligible voters that turned up for these campaigns, hence some people voted for candidates unknown to them.
  • On the election day (21/02/2011) the following irregularities were observed:
    a) Some candidates suddenly withdrew their candidature on the last minute, their names and photos were not removed from ballot papers. This created confusion among voters and increased the number of invalid votes as some voters voted for those candidates who had withdrawn their candidatures;


  • Ngoma District, MURAMA Sector: former Vice Mayor in charge of Economic affairs;
  • Burera; Executive Secretary of Gahunga Sector;
  • Nyamasheke District, Bushekeri Sector, 2 candidates withdrew their candidatures;
  • Nyarugenge district, former Mayor withdrew her candidature;
  • Kamonyi District, Karama Sector;
  • Rubavu Sector: two candidates withdrew from the race;
  • Nyamagabe District, Tare Sector, one candidate withdrew;
  • Gatsibo District, all the former mayor and vice mayors withdrew;
  • Huye District, at Gishamvu and Ngoma, sectors;
  • Rusizi District, at Gashonga, a candidature was withdrawn one day before the elections;
  • Kicukiro District,; withdrawal of candidatures;
  • Gisagara District; in Kibirizi Sector, a candidate who exhibited the genocide ideology, was caught and jailed;

b) Some supervisors of the elections and local leaders abused their powers and influenced people to vote for some candidates.


  • Ntyazo and Busasamana in Nyanza District;
  • Muyange in Ruhango District;
  • Muhanga stadium and Nyarusange Sector in Muhanga District;
  • In Gisagara District, Musha Sector, one NEC official was put under detention and replaced for trying to favor a candidate
  • In Nyagatare District, in Rwimiyaga and Rukomo sectors, assessors were jailed for vote rigging;
  • In Burera District, Ruhondo Sector, .
  • In Ngoma District, local leaders rigged votes in favour of one candidate;
  • In Rubavu District, the Executive Secretary of Kanyemfurwe Cell, Nyakiriba Sector, influenced the voters until the NEC officials prevailed.
  • In Huye District, former Executive Secretary of Gahororo Cell, at Karama took people to a valley and was caught briefing them about the candidates to vote for. He was arrested by police and put under detention;
  • In Rubavu District, Nyakiriba Sector, Mahoko ADPR Primary School polling centre, a candidate was caught by local leaders and security officers in the act of distributing his campaigning photographs on the voting day. His candidature was withdrawn and the votes nullified.
    c) Counting and consolidation of votes: in 03 places the CSEOM observers were not allowed access to follow up on the counting and consolidation of votes at polling centers and at district level.

Example :

  • Rubavu, Ruhango and Nyarugenge districts.
  • d) During elections in some places there were instances where there was only one and unopposed candidate.
  • Here are some examples:
  • In Ngoma District, the incumbet Mayor of Ngoma was a unique candidate;
  • In Burera, the incumbet Mayor of the District;
  • In Gatsibo, in Rwimbogo Sector, the Mayor elected moved upwards as a unique candidate;
  • d-Other cases observed:
  • In Nyanza District, at Ntyazo, some voters were allowed to vote without presenting their IDs and voting cards;
  • In Nyamasheke District, Ruharambuga Sector, one candidate applied both as an ordinary and youth candidate and his candidature was nullified;
  • In Gakenke District, a man contested the election of his wife. He was caught and jailed for breaching the law;
  • In Kayonza District, during the elections of 4/02/2011, CSEOM observers were temporaliry jailed for failure to produce accreditation letters, as they had not been issued by NEC. However, they were immediately released after the CSEOM spokesman’s intervention.
  • In Gisagara District, Mamba sector, an ordinary candidate presented a forged CV and his candidature was nullified.

3.1.3. Part 3:

Elections for women councils, youth and people with disabilities took place from 13th February 2011 to 5th March 2011.

In, general elections at cell, sector level, district level and at Kigali city level were free and fair. They were characterized by transparency and fair competition.

4. Legal issues.

In general, laws and elections guidelines were adhered to and this is demonstrated by:

  • The constitution that determines the periodicity of such elections was respected
  • The elections were in accordance with the law No 27/2010 of 19/06/2010 on elections. The provisions of article 133 stipulate that “elections are held in accordance with the presidential order”. However, the publication of the Presidential Order no 01/01 of 03/02/2011 governing elections of leaders at village, cell and sector level was released one (1) day before elections were held.
  • During the elections of 4/2/2011 on the village (umudugudu) level, the requirements for leadership positions were not easy to ascertain on the Election Day. Ex. Article no 131 of the election guidelines that talks of age, level of education ….for a candidate.

5. Media conduct during local elections.

Media freedoms are provided for in article no 34 of the constitution of the Republic of Rwanda. During the local elections, the media outlets comprised of; TVR, 22 Radio stations, and 30 newspapers. Of these, 04 Kinyarwanda newspapers; Imvaho, Umwezi, Izuba Rirashe and Rushyashya, 02 English papers New Times, and Rwanda Dispatch and 01 French paper La Nouvelle Relève stood out more prominently than others during elections. It was observed that during elections, there were no restrictions or harassment on journalists nor censorship on media at all stages of elections.

The print media also covered all events unhindered during elections highlighting some irregularities. Some items that featured most were the role of students in elections, the last-minute withdraw of candidatures, the electoral officials and local leaders who abused their responsibilities and indulged in malpractices in favor of certain candidates. The numeracy of the private media with the public ones gave chance to the population to enjoy the different but complimentary news and views on the electoral process.

6. Recommendations:

  • Village elections should be held at the level of each village to avoid congestion at election sites and influences from other villages at the same centre.
  • Local elections should be held during holidays for students to vote from their respective Villages of origin;
  • Local leaders and Election officials should refrain from breaching electoral laws.
  • The campaign period should be given ample time and conducted in favourable days and hours of the day to allow for the population to make an informed choice since candidates are elected for a 5-year term.
  • The laws and guidelines governing the elections should be published early and made accessible to the population, so that they have enough time to understand them and the entire electoral process
  • There should be a time limit for the withdrawal of candidatures that ends before candidates photographs are sent to the printing house.
  • The law governing elections of youth, people with disabilities and women councils should be revised and qualifications lowered to allow for more participation of these categories of people.

7. Conclusion:

In general, these elections were conducted in a conducive environment and there was a high turn up of voters. However, the irregularities that marred the elections could easily be avoided if; civic and voter education is done early and sufficiently, election stakeholders are impartial, laws are respected in entirety and provide for freedoms for voters and candidates.

Despite the highlighted irregularities, these elections were generally free and fair with calmness at polling stations and a fair level of competition for different positions. Therefore, there is no reason to contest the results.

Rapport de mission de la délégation du RCSP en Districts de Bugesera, Huye et Nyanza sur le programme national de Bye Bye Nyakatsi

Bye, bye, Nyakatsi

Voici en Kinyarwanda le rapport de mission de la délégation de la plate forme de la société civile en Districts de Bugesera, Huye et Nyanza sur la problématique des potiers vis à vis du programme national de Bye Bye Nyakatsi

Raporo y’ubutumwa bwo ku wa 6 Kamena 2011 mu Karere ka Bugesera, Huye na Nyanza

Ku italiki ya 6 Kamena 2011, intumwa z’Inama y’Ubuyobozi bwa Plate Forme ya Sosiyete Sivile y’u Rwanda zasuye uturere twa Bugesera, Huye na Nyanza mu rwego rwo kureba uko abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka bamerewe nyuma yo gusenyerwa muri politiki ya Leta yo guca nyakatsi mu Rwanda. Itsinda rimwe ryagiye mu Bugesera risura i Ruhuha na Musenyi, irindi rijya i Huye na Nyanza risura abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka bo mu Mudugudu wa Nyarurama, Akagali ka Byinza, Umurenge wa Kinazi, akarere ka Huye n’Umudugudu wa Kabasima, Akagali ka Nkomero, Umurenge wa Mukingo, Akarere ka Nyanza.

Ikipe yagiye mu Bugesera yari igizwe na:




KALIMBA Zephyrin

Itsinda ryagiye i Huye na Nyanza ryari rigizwe na:




NTAMUNOZA Eliel, Umukozi wa COPORWA ushinzwe Intara y’Amajyepfo

I. Mu Karere ka Huye, Umurenge wa Kinazi, Akagali ka Byinza, hasuwe abasigajwe inyuma n’amateka batuye mu Mudugudu wa Nyarurama i Mago. Imiryango 12 yari ituye mu nzu za nyakatsi yarasenyewe none ubu ngubu abantu barenga 10 basigaye babana mu tuzu 2. Buri kazu ntikarenza 3m kuri 2m. Hari n’abibera hanze ku gasozi munsi y’ibiti n’abandi bongeye kugondagonda akandi kazu k’ibyatsi. Nyuma yo kuganira n’ababa muri ubwo buzima budakwiriye ikiremwa- muntu ndetse n’inyamaswa, hari ibibazo bikwiriye kugirirwa ubuvugizi bwihariye kugira ngo ubuyobozi bushinzwe imibereho myiza y’abaturage n’uburenganzira bw’ikiremwa muntu bw’ibanze bubagoboke mu maguru mashya batararimbuka.

Ikibazo cy’imiturire: uburyo babayeho si ubwo ikiremwa muntu. Muri gahunda yo kuvugurura imiturire basenyewe nyakatsi bimurirwa mu midugudu, ku basigajwe inyuma n’amateka haba ikibazo cy’ingurane cy’ibibanza bazatuzwamo kuko batagira ubutaka. Gukemura iki kibazo nuko Leta yabaha aho bubakirwa cyangwa bubaka n’imirima yo guhingamo nk’abandi banyarwanda. Bahabwa ubutaka nta ngurane bakabona aho bubaka naho bahinga nk’abandi banyarwanda. Abarenganyijwe bakamburwa amasambu yabo kubera ubujiji bakayasubizwa nta yandi mananiza kuko hari ababubarayeho bakababeshya ko babaguriye cyangwa se bakigabiza amasambu yabo mu gihe bo babaga bakurikiye ba shebuja cyangwa se abo bakoreraga.

The public policy dialogue on political space and human rights in Rwanda

Dialogue and debate are not alien to the Rwandan Society. They have always been a common phenomenon in the history of Rwanda as a nation. Historically Rwandans lived together and solved their problems through public dialogue. The discussions were characterized by frankness, openness and trust. This culture bred social cohesion within the Rwandan society and acted as a mechanism for effective conflict management at society level.

As communities disintegrated and the eventual fleeing of Rwandans into the Diaspora as refugees, that framework for social space vanished, the traditional mechanisms of conflict resolution through dialogue were ignored and people resorted to foreign mechanisms of conflict resolution, hatred became the product of widening social gap among Rwandans. The space provided by the advent of the media was manipulated into an avenue for propagation of hatred and the outcome of which was social disharmony that culminated into the genocide.

After the genocide of 1994, and with the advent of new political establishment spearheaded by the RPF, cultural fall back became the reference for settling problems. A quick reference can be made to GACACA, ABUNZI and of the recent ITORERO as institutions that have rejuvenated and instilled Rwandan cultural values. These traditional institutions were established with the aim of fostering social cohesion and conflict management in the society.

The Rwanda Civil Society Platform has the role as representing the majority of Rwandan Civil Society in fostering debate to enable self engendered of Rwandan values and norms as a driver in promoting democracy and good governance, prerequisites to achieving sustainable development.

Citizens’ Voice and Government Accountability are important dimensions of governance; in other words, Citizens’ capacity to express and exercise their views effectively is believed to have the potential to influence government priorities and processes, including a stronger demand for responsiveness, transparency and accountability.

There have been criticisms spanning different regimes in Rwanda pertaining to limited or lack of political space and violations of the rights of the media and other similar criticisms. The regime in place has had different opinions over such criticisms in the press conferences and media, both print and electronic. These flying verbal attacks and counter-attacks have earned neither the governments nor the opposing parties any better bargain. Now that Rwanda is enjoying the fruits of peace, it is vital that the foundations are cemented to ensure this peace will last.

The Public Policy Debate is a pilot activity of the five year “Public Policy Dialogue Project (PPDP)” to be implemented by the Civil Society Platform, whose overall objective is “to promote Good Governance and rule of law through inculcating the spirit of debate among Rwandans as a mechanism for conflict resolution and space for mutual accountability”.

This Public Policy Dialogue meeting had the following immediate and long-term objectives:

 To build the capacity of Citizens’ participation and to demand accountability through constructive dialogue and debates.
 To have a face to face dialogue between various sections of the Rwandan community about good governance and policy issues;
 Inculcating the culture of debate, tolerance and respect of opinion of others in the Rwandan community;
 To strengthen social cohesion
 To create a platform for dialogue on various issues relating to good governance and to give an opportunity to Rwandans to speak out on issues concerning them,
 To set up a political arena for the airing of societal problems on good governance;
 To find solutions/answers to burning questions from the Rwandan Public;
 To enhance Government accountability and to close the gap between the Government and its citizens;
 Creation of an enabling environment for the media.

This Public Policy Dialogue meeting had the following immediate and long-term Expected Outputs:

 Capacity Building of citizen in civic participation and to demand accountability is enhanced;
 A platform for continued open space for dialogue and government accountability;
 An enabling environment for the Media;
 The process of inculcating the culture of debate among Rwandans on issues concerning them is commenced;
 Government officials will provide answers to questions raised by the public;
 Face to face dialogue between various sections of the Rwandan community.

Rwandans from different political backgrounds and perspectives both in the country and in the Diaspora were convened to the meeting. Two presentations were made by two scholars of international experience on two themes, namely:
 Political Space and its exploitation in Rwanda, and
 Respect of Human Rights in Rwanda and freedom of press.

The presenters were supported by Rwandan discussants who made short briefs on the same themes, following the presentations. After every round of presentations on each theme, the debate was opened to the audience to react, respond or ask questions related to the themes. At the end of the Public Policy Dialogue, joint resolutions were presented and adopted by participants. Discussions were moderated by persons chosen for their integrity in the Rwandan Civil Society.

All participants and presenters were treated equally in order to maintain the spirit of debate and ensure that there is equal playground for all. The debate was devoid of intimidation, fear or insults to individuals or institutions.

The debates were conducted in Kinyarwanda to allow effective participation in the dialogue meeting for all Rwandan, and for foreigners participating; simultaneous translation was availed inside the debating room in both French and English. The debates were broadcasted live on the National Radio and on Rwanda Television so as to reach out to Rwandans of all walks of life countrywide.

Observation, where citizens expressed the need for a Civil Society forum where they will be allowed to freely express their views, he pointed out that freedom of expression has a direct consequence on sustainable development. “A few setbacks however, remained: Why does it take 24 hours to register a company, but gets complicated to register a political party? Why is it that people flee the country once they have been demoted from their political positions? Is the fear of lack of space genuine or utopia?” He interrogated…
While encouraging participants to speak their mind freely during the Public Policy Dialogue, he reminded that the policy dialogue would be a test to assess the existence or lack of the political space and freedoms in Rwanda

We, the participants to the Public Policy Dialogue on Political Space on freedom of Expression and Freedom of Media and the respect of Human Rights in Rwanda, taking place at the Serena Hotel on the 14th December 2010,
The dialogue that brought together the Rwandan Civil Society, the Government of Rwanda Representatives, representatives of political parties registered in Rwanda, the Private Sector, members of the Rwandan Diaspora, members of the Media, members of the Diplomatic Corps in Rwanda and Development Partners;
Having debated in an open, honest, free and conducive environment on several issues concerning governance, freedoms and progress in Rwanda, with the aim to consolidate promote the culture of free and open dialogue and social cohesion among Rwandan people.
Do jointly adopt the following resolutions:
1. The civil society should be congratulated for having organized this Public Policy dialogue that in consistent with the Rwandan Constitution and other laws.
2. The civil society should continue to organize dialogues of this nature as a true indicator of the existence of freedom of expression, and given their importance in the governance of the country and in the welfare of the citizens they should be given ample time;
3. To continue to sensitize the public on the culture of mutual respect, speaking the truth, constructive dialogue and debate, accepting opposing ideas and dissenting opinion with tolerance;
4. Commend the presence of Rwandans form the Diaspora, especially those from Malawi, Zambia and Canada for their effort, openness and freedom manifested in expressing their opinions in this dialogue;
5. Recommend that Rwandans in exile should continue to be visited and given a true picture of the country, in an effort to address the existing information gap on the reality and progress in Rwanda. The initiative to share information and present a true picture of Rwanda should be jointly implemented by the Government and the Civil Society to ensure its objectiveness and credit;
6. Communication material on the current status of Rwanda should be developed and disseminated worldwide, with the aim to present a true picture of the country;
7. Discussions should continue on issues that have comeback several times in the debates, including Political Space, freedom of expression, freedom of media and the respect of Human rights in Rwanda, with the aim to foster them and scale-up the performance of their relevant institutions;
8. Due to the prevailing freedom of opinion in the meeting, and the clear explanations given in the debates, we recommend that reports of such debates be disseminated with the aim to give a true picture of the country, waive the fear of Rwandans and others, living in the country and in the Diaspora on the prevailing freedom of expression in Rwanda.
9. We are satisfied with the good work relationship between the Government of Rwanda and the Civil Society and recommend that the partnership should be fostered.

Public Policy debate on Citizens Participation in Performance Contracts IMIHIGO and on Community Based Health Insurance Scheme “Mutuelle de santé” held on 13th of December 2011 at Serena Hotel.


It has been proven and indisputably clear that, dialogue is an important tool for Citizen Participation, and cements the pillars of democracy and good governance. It helps in eliminating suspicion and mistrust between duty bearers and right holders.

Citizens become more enlightened about the services offered by the government and difficulties it faces while providing these services. On the other hand, the government gets informed about Citizens’ complaints on the offered services, thus giving it an opportunity to improve on its service delivery.

The Rwanda Civil Society Platform (RCSP) recognizing its role as representing the majority of the Rwanda Civil Society Organizations in fostering debate as a space for dialogue and conflict resolution, in 2010 introduced a framework of Public Policy Dialogues intended to create a dialogue platform and give Rwandans an opportunity to speak out on Good Governance issues concerning them.

The first was conducted at National Level in 2010 December 14th at Hotel Serena on “the state of political space and its exploitation as well as the respect of Human Rights and freedom of press in Rwanda”.

These Public Policy Dialogues were later extended to the district level in Gisagara, Rulindo and Nyamagabe districts in order to give an opportunity to Rwandans at district and community level to air out their concerns on Public Policies and service delivery matters. The dialogues at district level were conducted on 14th of July in RULINDO District, 22nd July in Nyamagabe District and on 27th of July in Gisagara District.

The discussed topic was “the implementation of the revised Community Based health insurance scheme (CHBI) “Mutuelle de santé” and related concerns”.
During these dialogues and during the ongoing Citizen Score Card process that is conducted by the district implementing partners in the Public Policy Implementation Monitoring and Advocacy (PPIMA) project funded by SIDA through NPA, the frequently raised question by citizens, was why the fees CHBI have been raised despite low financial capacity of citizens at community level to cover the cost of new premiums.

This underpins the need for citizens’ participation in decision making process, hence the Rwanda Civil Society platform decided to conducted a research on citizens participation in Imihigo process with a view of assessing the levels and factors affecting effective citizens’ participation in the Imihigo process and recommend areas of improvement. This research was also aimed at mapping spaces or opportunities available for fostering citizen’s participation as well as identifying strategies and measures needed to improve citizen’s participation in order to safeguard the achievements made by performance contracts so far.

Basing on the recommendations drawn from these dialogues at district level and complaints raised by citizens on Mutuelle de santé during the ongoing Community Score Card process under PPIMA project, and on issues and recommendation raised in the recent RCSP report produced on Citizens’ participation in Imihigo process, the Rwanda Civil Society Platform has decided to organize a national dialogue in order to inform policy makers and duty bearers on key citizens’ concerns on the current Community Based Health Insurance scheme and on Citizens’ participation in Imihigo process.

The Rwanda Civil Society Platform commemorated on Friday 29th of June, the 18th Anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide against the Tutsi.

The accusations were made by Edward Munyamaliza, the president of the Rwanda Civil Society Platform (RCSP), during an event to commemorate the Genocide over the weekend.

Addressing the press at Rwanda Civil Society Platform offices at Kacyiru after a walk by members of civil society platform, Munyamaliza said that the civil society at the time failed to play its role as over one million people were killed.

“We have had lessons from the past. As the civil society today, it is our objective to fight the Genocide and uphold the truth, which our colleagues in the past failed to do,”
“Those who don’t uphold the truth or deliberately deny or minimize the Genocide, have no other intention but to drag the country back into that same mess, something we will not allow to happen,” Munyamariza said.

Munyamariza said that the civil society plays an influential role in the society and therefore has the obligation, through various mechanisms, to fight the Genocide ideology and anything that would want to drag the country into the dark past.
He noted that Genocide deniers are not only Rwandans but also some foreigners, who members of the civil society interact with on a daily basis.

Among other things, he said the civil society platform has played a role in the reconciliation and development process since 1994.

He said that where the civil society failed at the time, the new civil society is ready to make up by playing an integral role in the socio-economic development process.

Rwanda Civil Society Platform hosts a dialogue on aid effectiveness

The workshop and dialogue are intended to build the capacity of civil society and raise their awareness in order to be able to join hands with their partners in the struggle to make aid work , especially for the poorest , and also to create a platform for continuous engagement of the civil society with the government and development partners on matters related to aid/development effectiveness.

“Our civil society has not been very vibrant, but this information-sharing and capacity-building workshop will make more aware of our duty, which is to play an advocate role for the poor in the agenda,” said Rwmda Civil Society Platform (RCSP)’s Chairperson Edouard Munyamaliza

According to Innocent Mutabaruka, Action Aid agent in the country, building the capacity in CSOs is the best way to go in order to make sure that the needed impact in the process is effectively realized.

“We want to see our CSOs taking people involved in aid and development programs to account in order to know what’s working and what’s not. It’s the community that we are supposed to serve, that’s why in the whole process we have to stand for ‘only’ the poor’s interests.”

For Ronald Nkusi, the director of external finance unit at MINECOFIN, aid effectiveness must not be a bilateral issue between the government and donors. “It extends to the civil society which takes the issue down to the people. It must be multilateral.”

He added that the civil society has the key power in the whole process, mainly related to what the people in the countryside are benefiting. “We need to see the government held to account from the results on the ground, donors pledging and accounting for their pledges not delivered, and also we want to know what the CSOs do with all the funding they receive.”

The CSOs’ building workshop and dialogue on aid effectiveness is supposed to establish a platform for continuous engagement of the CSOs with GoR and development partners on matters of aid effectiveness.

The workshop and dialogue is participatory; there is an experience sharing with resourceful persons from Better Aid, government (MINECOFIN) and members of Rwanda’s CSOs.

Civil Society National Dialogue on access to clean water and sanitation

Water is both an economic and social good, and the recommended minimum objective unit of water supply rate is 20liters per day in rural areas, and this is an indication on how water is very important in reserving human life. In allocating water resources, priority must be given to the social functions of water in society. This means that, domestic uses of water shall be accorded priority in allocation decisions, particularly in times of shortage .Additionally, there should be equity in allocation of water to rural and urban areas and those in lower and lower wealthy quintiles. Although there should be full cost recovery by entities providing water supplies, there should be targeted subsidies to meet the basic needs of the most disadvantaged communities. It is also imperative to involve water users and other stake holders in making all decision related to water resources managements and allocation. This is crucial to achieve best and sustainable results in water resource management.

According to the representative of the Ministry of Infrastructure in this conference, the main objective of National Water and Sanitation Policy is to ensure sustainable and affordable access to safe water supply, sanitation and waste management services for all Rwandans, as a contribution to poverty reduction, public health, economic development and environmental protection.
The Ministry of Infrastructure set up the specific objectives of National Policy and Strategy for water supply, that is to say: Raising rural water supply coverage to 85% by 2017 and 100% by 2020 through decentralization (7 years Government program); Ensuring sustainable functionality by developing effective management structures and well-regulated public-private partnership (PPP) arrangements; Ensuring safe, reliable and affordable urban water supply services for all(100%services coverage by 2017) while strengthening the financial viability of the utility.

The Ministry also embarks on raising house hold sanitation coverage to 65%, and promoting hygiene behavior change through its stake holder EWSA. Implementation of improved sanitation for Infrastructures such as schools, health facilities, and other public institutions and locations.
Enhancement of water management to mitigate impacts on priorities, Infrastructure, human health and the environment, together with implementation of integrated solid waste management in ways that are protective to human health and the environment. This will lead also to the development of the sector’s institutional and capacity building frame work.

The Ministry of Infrastructure focuses on Projects implementation (priority projects to achieve 100% by 2017), and it is estimated that by December 2012, the ongoing projects will increase access to safe drinking water to 811,965 people, equivalent to 7.3%.
It ensures the preparation of National water supply Master plan National wide, construction and upgrading of Water treatment plants (WTP) and extension of water network. The Ministry also is putting much emphasis on construction of water supply schemes in 17 new emerging towns in western, southern, northern, and eastern provinces. Construction of water supply schemes also in 7 secondary towns in the same provinces is also in place.

Construction of 5,143km of new water supply schemes to supply IMIDUGUDU in rural areas in all districts, and rehabilitation of 2,202km of existing nonfunctional water supply schemes.
Finally, the Ministry intervened in extending electricity grid to water pumping stations that are currently using diesel fuel and cluster water supply schemes to increase economies of scale and low cross subsidies between systems with high and low production cost.

Rwanda Civil Society public policy dialogue on 12 years Basic Education

Rwanda’s Vision 2020 and its Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) aim at the development of a knowledge-based and technology-led economy.

In this context, Rwanda has embarked on reforms aiming at improving every aspect of quality education. In line with these efforts, the government of Rwanda has focused on aligning curriculum, teaching and learning, and assessment to ensure that the education system is producing the kind of citizens the country desires.

The second pillar of the Vision 2020 highlights the general need to regularly examine curricula in terms of their relevance to assist in the achievements of education and national development goals and objectives. While curriculum is not the only factor influencing education quality, it is the core of the entire education system.

Rwanda’s government remains committed to achieving UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) number 2 and 3, which call for the opportunity for all children to complete the full course of primary education and for gender disparities in primary and secondary schools to be eliminated by 2015 respectively. The country has made great strides in achieving these goals, with a net primary school enrolment rate of 91.7% . It appears that by 2015, Rwanda will have achieved, or, at least, have come very close to achieving MDG 2 and the education aspects of MDG 3.

In addition to meeting the education policy goals set forth by international organisations, Rwanda maintains its own strategic goals as discussed in the two primary documents, the Rwanda Vision 2020, and the EDPRS. The former emphasizes education’s role in creating human capital to bolster Rwanda’s economy. The policy calls for training and educating people at all levels, including adults that lack the basic education and skills necessary for employment. The EDPRS policy echoes the need for access to quality education at all levels, with the addition of high level objectives related to educational effectiveness, the strengthening of science and technology teaching, and the widespread use of ICT.

In summary, the policy goals of Rwanda’s education system are aimed at creating an educated workforce with the technological knowhow to engage in service sector employment. These goals reflect the government’s overall plan for Rwanda to become a technology hub in Africa, which is based on the fact that the nation’s limited stock of natural resources and arable land necessitate its transformation into a knowledge economy rather than one based on industry or agriculture.

Read the whole report

Raporo ku kiganiro nyungurana-bitekerezo sosiyete Sivile nyarwanda yakoze k’uburezi bw’ibanze bw’imyaka 12 mu rwanda

Icyerekezo cy’u Rwanda muri 2020 na gahunda y’imbaturabukungu bifite intego yo guteza imbere ubumenyi ngiro, ikoranabuhanga n’ubukungu.

Muri iyigahunda, u Rwanda rwashyize imbaraga mu ihinduramatwara rishingiye ku guteza imbere ireme ry’uburezi binyuze muri izi ngufu, leta y’u Rwandayashyizeho gahunda yo kwigisha, kwiga ndetse no kugenzura gahunda y’uburezi kugirango butange abaturage igihugu gikeneye.

Igice cya kabiri cy’ingenzi cy‘icyerekezo 2020 kigaragaza iby’ibanze bikenewe kugirango bagenzure buri gihe gahunda y’amasomo ifasha kugera kuntego z’uburezi n’iterambere ry’igihugu. Nubwo gahunda y’amasomo atariyo yonyine ituma habaho ireme ry’uburezi ariko n’iyingenzi.

Leta y’u Rwanda izakomeza gushyira ingufu mukugera kuntego z’ikinyagihumbi UN yihaye mu iterambere igice cya kabiri nicya gatatu; ihamagarira abana kudapfusha ubusa amahirwe yo kwiga amashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye izarangirana na 2015. Mu gihugu cyateye intambwe nini mu kugera kuri izintego kukigereranyo kingana na 91.7% mu mashuri abanza. Bigaragara ko mu mwaka wa 2015, u Rwnda ruzaba rwabigezeho cyangwa, rwenda kugera kuntego z’ikinyagihumbi igice cya kabiri ndetse n’isura y’uburezi mu kinyagihumbi mu gice cya gatatu.

Ikindi mukuzuza intego z’uburezi zashyizweho n’imiryango mpuzamahanga, u Rwnda rwakomeje ingamba zarwo nkuko zagaragajwe mu byiciro bibiri, icyerekezo 2020 na gahunda y’imbaturabukungu. Ibyo bigaragaza akamaro k’uburezi mu guha umuntu ubushobozi mu kuzamura ubukungu bw’u Rwanda. Iyogahunda ihamagarira abantu guhabwa amahugurwa no kwigisha abaturage bo mu byiciro byose, harimo abakuru batagize amahirwe yo kubona uburezi n’ubumenyi by’ingenzi kugirango babone imirimo.

Gahunda y’imbaturabukungu igaragaza ibikenewe kugirango tugere ku ireme ry ‘uburezi mu byiciro byose, hamwe n’intego zo kurwego rwo hejuru zijyanye n’umusaruro w’uburezi ukenewe; gushyira imbaraga muri sayansi, kwigisha ikoranabuhanga no kuri kwirakwiza hose.
Muri make, gahunda y’u Rwanda mu burezi ifite intego yo gushyiraho abakozi bize bazi gukoresha ikoranabuhanga ku umurimo.

Izi gamba zijyanye na gahunda ya leta y’u Rwanda yo gutanga serivise y’ikoranabuhanga muri afurika bishingiye kumutungo kamere w’igihugu mukeya, gukoresha ubutaka bukeya dufite neza tububyaza ubwenge bwo guteza imbere ubukungu mu mwanya wo kububonamo ubw’inganda, ubuhinzi n’ubworozi gusa.

Soma Raporo yose


For the second time after the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, Rwandans have elected a new Constitution based on the 2003 Constitution as amended to date. In general, the Constitutional Referendum elections prepared based on people’s demand were conducted on 18/12/2015 in calm, secure, free and fair mood. Automatic word wrap
Civil Society organizations have among their roles and responsibilities to act as advocates of the people in development agendas that affect the lives of the population, and promote democratic values and principles. In this regard, the Civil Society Platform in conjunction with its members and structures have deployed 473 short-term Observers, 30 Long-Term Observers, and 12 Core-Team members (515 observers in total) in order to carry out electoral observation countrywide, present in 303 sectors and 398 polling stations. The civil society observers conducted their electoral observation activities in a professional manner based on instruction as issued by the National Electoral Commission and International Standards on democratic elections.Automatic word wrap
This constitutional referendum was conducted on 17/12/2015 for Rwandans living in Diaspora, and on 18/12/2015 for Rwandans living in Rwanda based on the 04/06/2003 Constitution modifications as were demanded by more than 3.7 million of Rwandans and received by the Parliament of Rwanda. This referendum is also organized based and in line with the electoral law n027/2010 of 19/06/2010 and amended to date, and the Presidential Order n0112/01 of 09/12/2015 that determines the date and the object of the Referendum, as well as the National Electoral Commission’s Instructions on election n0 04/2015 of 10/12/2015 that provide the proceedings of the 2015 constitutional referendum. Automatic word wrap
In general, the following are the broad picture of what civil society observes came up with:Automatic word wrap
• The constitutional referendum election started on time, the turn up was high, and in general the closure was on time as provided for by the law and instructions;Automatic word wrap
• Elections were conducted in a calm atmosphere, were seed to generally free and fair, and security was ensured;Automatic word wrap
• The staff of the National Electoral Commission were supportive and carrying out their duties professionally during the elections;Automatic word wrap
• Electoral materials were provided to the polling station on time;Automatic word wrap
• The polling rooms provided enough security for voters to elect in independence;Automatic word wrap
• Other observers were present on various sites (international and local observers);Automatic word wrap
• Media freedom was ensured;Automatic word wrap
• Civil society observers were facilitated to carry out their mission as observer, by getting appropriate accreditations, and observing electoral processes on sites;Automatic word wrap
While commending the how the constitutional referendum elections were well prepared and organized on the ground in general, some issues are worth mentioning here as observed in some polling stations:Automatic word wrap
• Some National Electoral Commission Staff refused sharing some key data with our observers( kibungo sector, etc);Automatic word wrap
• Some civil society observers were not allowed entry to some of the consolidation rooms (Nyanza, Huye- Ngoma Ecole autonome, sector of Tumba-site Kibondo, Ruhango);Automatic word wrap
• Some electoral matierials were either not sufficient or came late to the site (Nyanza-busasamana-kavumu site, Kicukiro- site EP Kinunga: Site of St Andre, site ya kamuhanga, cyahafi, etc);Automatic word wrap
• The time for preparation of the constitutional referendum was not sufficient for civil society organizations to be well prepared for observatory activities. Automatic word wrap
These issues presented here are minor that can be improved in future, compared to the way the constitutional referendum elections were prepared and conducted in a professional way. So, as civil society organizations in Rwanda, we find that the constitutional referendum elections were free and fair, and commend the efforts by the Parliament and the Government of Rwanda to respond to the People’s demands in this regard. Automatic word wrap
Done at Kigali, on 19/12/2015

Munyamaliza EdouardAutomatic word wrap
Chief Observer, on behalf ofAutomatic word wrap
The Civil Society Electoral Observation Mission (CSEOM)




 [1]. Background and Rationale

Rwanda Civil Society Platform (RCSP) was created as a non-profit making umbrella organization in 2004 with an objective to set up a plat-form for information sharing and consultation between CSOs and their partners.The Rwanda Civil Society Platform is composed of 9 national umbrellas with nearly 1500 member organizations.RCSP serves to enhance CSOs to contribute to the well-being of the population by acting as a framework for dialogue, context analysis, exchange of information, mutual respect, lobbying and evidence based advocacy on national, regional and international issues on behalf of all members of Rwanda civil society and citizens of Rwanda at large. Its mission is to empower, represent, coordinate and defend public interests and interest of its members at national, regional and international levels for development, effectiveness and sustainability.

Rwanda Civil Society Platform with the support of Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA ) through the Public Policy Information Monitoring and Advocacy (PPIMA III) project and in line with its core business of advocating for the issues that hinder the socioeconomic development of Rwandans.Through consultations of PPIMA project partners who conduct Community Score Card (CSC) process, RCSP is concerned by the issue of land expropriation and transfer process in Rwanda particularly as an issue that may affect the socioeconomic development of individuals and the national development in general.

In this perspective, the Rwanda Civil Society Platform commissioned a study on analysis of land expropriation and transfer process in Rwanda as an issue that is frequently raised by expropriated households and those experienced land transfers, thus it requires a special attention to all expropriating entities including the central and local government, the private sector and civil society are called to join efforts and address not only issues observed in expropriation and land transfer but all the issues that hinder the socioeconomic welfare of the population.
Since 2016 and 2017,RCSP and PPIMA project implementersreceived a large number of land expropriation and transfers related complaints from citizens through community score card, it is in that framework, RCSP conducted an in-depth research to carry out an evidence based advocacy.

In this regard, the Rwanda Civil Society Platform is organizing a Public Policy dialogue as a space for interaction and discussions on the issues highlighted in the process of expropriation and land transfer among different stakeholders including the government, development partners, private sector, the Civil Society and citizens for better solutions to address the issues observed and therefore, propose policy actions.

Thus, public policy national dialogue is an annual event falling in the mission of advocating for issues that hinder the socioeconomic well-being of the population. Furthermore, the Public Policy Dialogue is an opportunity to share the findings between the Government, different development actors, stakeholders, Civil Society and citizens themselves and find together sustainable solutions to the bottlenecks highlighted in the land expropriation and transfer process.

2. Objectives of the Civil Society Public Policy Dialogue
2.1. The overall objective

The overall objective of the dialogue is to provide a face to face interaction and a space for dialogue between various actors for discussing the issues observed in the land expropriation and transfer process for them to take adequate measures.

2.2. Specific objectives
1. Provide space for citizens to present issues encountered in the land expropriation process and suggest alternative solutions to decision makers and other stakeholders.
2. Provide space for citizens to present issues relating to land transfers and suggest alternative solutions to decision makers and other stakeholders.
3. Solicit the commitment of decision makers towards resolving the issues highlighted in the land expropriation and transfer process.
4. Call up on different stakeholders including government and private sector to jointly take corrective measures in order to conduct expropriation projects for the public interest while considering the continuous welfare of the citizens to be expropriated.

3. Expected results

1. Common framework for engagement on land expropriation and transfer issues is strengthened to build synergies for effective socioeconomic development of the citizens and the country in general,
2. Solution paths for addressing the issues observed in the land expropriation and transfer process are identified and discussed for the betterment of a clear implementation of the law,
3. Commitment of all stakeholders towards advocating and executing recommended policy actions as formulated from the bottlenecks identified in a bid to promote a citizen centered framework in the land expropriation and transfer process.

4. Target Participants
The Civil Society public policy national dialogue is targeting high officials representing ministries and other Government institutions,Civil Society Organizations (both national and international),Embassies, Development partners, local authorities (all districts), academia and ordinary citizens.

5. Language of the Dialogue
 English, Kinyarwanda and French will be used with a simultaneous interpretation .

6. Date and Venue
The Civil Society public policy national dialogue on the land expropriation and transfer process in Rwandawill be held on30th November, 2017 at Kigali Convention Centre (KCC)from 8: 00AM to 4: 00 PM.


Minister in the President’s office
Minister of Land and Forestry (Guest of Honor)
Senate/ Socio-Economic Commission
Chamber of deputies / Socio-Economic Commission
Mayors and Directors of District One Stop Center


GERMAN Embassy
UK Embassy
USA Embassy
KENYA Embassy
UGANDA Embassy





Please download The Results


Different civil society organisation in Rwanda attended a one day Technical-Consultative meeting on CSOs Thematic Working Groups at Olympic Hotel Kimironko. The aim of the meeting was to foster the implementation of Thematic Working Groups.The Dialogue was graced by executive secretary of RCSP Mr. silas Sinyigaya.

The overall objective of the TWGs is to set up a framework for dialogue, reflection and exchange of information among CSOs by strengthening the voice of CSOs through building coalitions/synergies for advocacy purposes in order to effectively participate and influence formulation, monitoring and implementation of policies and laws.

On behalf of Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), MR. Gatabazi Oliver thanked the participants and ensured a strong partner of the Civil Societies in strengthening CSOs for increased participation support from the organisation.


RCSP, with the support of Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), through the Public Policy Information Monitoring and Advocacy (PPIMA III) project and in line with its core mandate aiming at supporting CSOs and citizens to participate in policy formulation and implementation processes, established CSOs Thematic Working Groups (TWGs) .
With the intention to create a space for information sharing and consultation among CSOs and other relevant stakeholders aiming at building synergies for advocacy purposes in Rwanda so as to improve their efficiency towards contributing to national development.
The Thematic Working Groups will involve identifying issues on policies and laws relating to the TWG’s areas of intervention and then, gather relevant data and conduct researches/assessments the committees are composed of individual experts representing local civil society organizations from different domains of intervention.
Thematic Working Groups (TWGs) . are composed of three different groups
  Economic transformation TWG
  Social transformation TWG
  Transformational Governance TWG


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